CURRENT GROUP MEMBERS
Ph.D., Seoul National University
M.S., Incheon National University
B.S., Incheon National University
Electrochemistry in nanoscale dimensions has been increasingly attracted attention because of fascinating electrochemical behaviors, which are not observed in macroscale environments. However, it is difficult to detect electrochemical responses such in nanoscale, in particular current, because redox molecules with only limited access to a nanoelectrode produce a range of sub-nanoampere current. In attempt to detect the electron-transfer of single molecules, our lab has developed closely spaced double-electrode system to amplify current by redox cycling. My research focuses on the investigation of single-molecule redox events by means of electrochemical analysis as well as single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. In addition, single-molecule kinetics also can be attained individually in zeptoliter wells by creating isolated nanopore arrays.
Ph. D., Temple University
B.Tech., Central Electrochemical Research Institute
My research focuses on understanding the reactivity of individual enzyme cofactors, enzymes, and bacteria using coupled optical and electrochemical techniques. I am particularly interested in exploring the potential-/controlled redox environment-dependent fluorescence dynamics of the fluorogenic flavin based entities, starting from its molecular state (flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide) to its state as a cofactor or electron carrier in flavoenzyme (monomeric sarcosine oxidase) or bacteria (M. Xanthus) respectively. These studies help us to understand the contribution of individual molecules behavior to the ensemble average behavior and to elucidate the metabolic pathways in microbes.
B.A., Albion College
Atomically precise gold monolayer protected nanoclusters (Au MPCs) consist of a core of Au atoms covered with a protective monodisperse layer of thiolate ligands. These clusters are interesting due to their size-dependent plasmonic, metallic, and molecular properties. Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18 is a well studied smaller and consequently molecule-like Au MPC with catalytic applications. My research is currently focused on both the characterization of Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and mass spectrometry as well as developing methods to study the nanoelectrochemistry, specifically redox cycling over single electron charging reactions, of this and other atomically defined Au MPCs with molecule-like properties using nanopore electrode arrays (NEAs). NEAs consist of two nanometer scale layers of gold separated by an insulating layer in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure and can be fabricated with either recessed dual-ring electrode (RDRE) or recessed ring-disk electrode (RRDE) geometries. These NEAs are capable of trapping a single Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18 cluster on a zeptoliter scale, electrochemically active nanopore via voltage-gated transport in order to study electron transfer behaviors and other electrochemical and spectroscopic properties.
M.S., Seoul National University
B.S., Seoul National University
With the availability of highly sophisticated nanofabrication, recently more challenging and elaborate studies for electron transfer reactions have been conducted using nanotechnologies. The investigation of electron transfer events in single biological redox enzyme is one of the important topics in low dimensional electrochemistry area. My research focuses on understanding the relationship between the condition of individual redox enzymes and the macroscopic phenomenon coming from an ensemble or bulk collection of the same enzyme molecules, with anticipation of distinguished individual behavior of molecules over their average properties. For observing electron transfer events
in single enzyme molecule, electrochemical zero-mode wave guide (ZMW) structures in nanoscale are fabricated, where recessed duel-ring electrodes are employed for redox cycling to amplify faradaic currents. Combining electrochemistry with spectroscopy, electrochemical ZMW devices enable not
only the control of potential in environmentally confined nanopore structures, but also in situ measurement of the potential-dependent fluorescence dynamics of single enzyme molecules.
Tianyuan (Abby) Cao
B.S., Nanjing University
As a non-invasive, sensitive and rapid analytical tool, Raman spectroscopy has now been used extensively in biological sciences to understand the fundamentals of biochemical reactions, as well as in biomedical engineering and modern disease diagnosis. Confocal Raman imaging (CRM), which provides additional spatial information, is known to be very powerful in the detection of complex biological systems. My project is to utilize CRM method to detect the chemical characteristics of bacterial communities -- Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, gram negative opportunistic human pathogen that is associated with various severe infections such as cystic fibrosis (CF), and it also exhibits a high antibiotics resistance due to its surface motilities and biofilm formation ability. Quorum sensing system is a cell-to-cell communication system that P. aeruginosauses to regulate its biological behaviors, including biofilm formation and surface mollify, and the system relies highly on the production and secretion of small signaling molecules, known as the autoinducers. By using this powerful characterization method, I hope to understand how the autoinducers behave in P. aeruginosa strains under different environmental conditions at both macro- and molecular- level, and how these biological behaviors are regulated using quorum sensing system.
B.S. Temple University
Psuedomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for many hospital-acquired infections, and its ability to form biofilms contributes to its high antibiotic resistance, making these infections difficult to treat. While many studies have been performed on P.aeruginosa biofilms and bulk colonies, not much research has been done on the behavior of single P. aeruginosa bacteria. My work focuses on designing micropore electrode devices to be able to trap single bacteria and study their behavior upon changes to the surrounding environment through spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques.
HyeIn (Anne) Do
B.S., Purdue University
Surfaced Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy(SERS) demonstrates notable sensitivity for chemical and biochemical analysis, offering vibrational information for identification of numerous analytes, and Pyocyanin is the most widely studied virulence factor due to its role in pathogenesis. In my research, I am focusing on determination of the electrochemical adsorption isotherm of Ox in pyocyanin by SERS and the electrochemical behavior of Pyocyanin species as a function of potential either by cyclic voltammetry or differential pulse voltammetry.
M.S., South China University of Technology
B.S., Beijing University of Chemical Technology
The key ability for bacterial survival is to evolve with the varying environment. Alginate is a viscous extracellular polymer produced by mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, alginate plays a role in the biofilm structure and may act as intercellular material required for formation of biofilms which makes it an important signaling molecule. In my research, confocal raman microscopy (CRM) is used to test the role and structure of alginate which is produced by
P. aeruginosa FRD1 to study the mutation of P. aeruginosa caused by protein-mucin (pig-stomach). The goal of my research is to build a signal enhanced plate for bacteria study and use it to study the signature signaling molecules produced by P. aeruginosa in the varied environment with the powerful confocal raman microscopy (CRM).
B.S., Illinois State University
Sepsis is a condition where the chemicals released in the body to fight infection overwhelm the system and begin attacking body tissues. Severe cases of sepsis may lead to organ failure and eventually septic shock which has a mortality rate approaching 50%. According to the CDC, one third of patient death in hospitals is due to complications from sepsis. Recent interest in closed bipolar electrodes has yielded the creation of a battery powered device for the electrochromic detection and quantification of clinically relevant biomolecules. My research focuses on improving robustness and varying applications for this device for the electrochromic detection of biomolecules, particularly those relevant to the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock.